The typical male will live to the age of 76, while the average woman will survive to the age of 81, according to the World Health Organization. From infancy until very old age, women are tougher than males. The difference in life expectancy between men and women has long piqued the interest of scholars, medical professionals, and sociologists. Despite advances in healthcare and technology, a consistent pattern appears around the globe: women outlast men.
According to study from a South Korean university, male sex hormones, particularly testosterone, reduce immunological function and raise the risk of cardiovascular disease. The study looked at the medical data of 81 Korean eunuchs. They discovered that eunuchs lived 14 to 19 years longer than uncastrated males of the same socioeconomic class. Estrogen, the key female sex hormone, is thought to preserve cardiovascular health.
According to research, estrogen can widen blood vessels, decrease inflammation, and enhance blood flow, which may aid women in combating cardiovascular disease, which is a significant cause of mortality. According to one research, a woman’s heart rate rises throughout her menstrual cycle, providing the same advantages as moderate exercise. Furthermore, the existence of two X chromosomes in women may confer a genetic redundancy benefit, perhaps conferring increased resistance to some genetic illnesses.
Risky Behavior and Lifestyle Choices
Men are more likely to engage in dangerous activities, which can have a major influence on life expectancy. According to studies, males are more prone than women to smoke, drink excessively, and engage in risky behaviors. These habits raise the likelihood of chronic illnesses, accidents, and early death. In terms of eating habits, males prefer red meat and consume less vegetables and nutritional fiber. High cholesterol, heart disease, and even cancer have all been linked to these dietary patterns.
According to a Harvard School of Public Health research, consuming only one serving spoon of unprocessed red meat per day can raise one’s chance of dying prematurely by 13%. Red meat eating also raises the chance of dying from heart disease by 18% and cancer by 16%. Women, on the other hand, are more careful and tend to embrace healthier lifestyle practices such as regular medical check-ups, healthier diets, and better stress management.
Immune System Strength
According to studies, women have stronger immune responses than men, which may be attributed to sex hormones. Again, estrogen is assumed to have a role in enhancing immune system function, whereas testosterone, the major male sex hormone, may have immunosuppressive effects. Estrogen has been discovered to be an antioxidant.
According to a 2013 study published in the International Journal, estrogen can protect against the sort of DNA damage that causes sickness. This might help women fight infections and recover from illnesses more rapidly. Another argument is that a woman’s body evolved to withstand and recuperate from the physical stress of pregnancy and delivery, as well as the rigors of breastfeeding—challenges that a man’s body never faces
Social and Psychological Factors:
Women value their health and seek medical treatment more frequently than males. They are also more likely to participate in social activities and have strong social support networks, both of which have been demonstrated to improve mental and physical well-being. Men, on the other hand, may be more prone to conceal feelings and postpone getting treatment, both of which can have a bad influence on overall health.
Workplace dangers and pressures also contribute to the gender lifespan disparity. Men are more likely to work in physically demanding, high-risk jobs like construction, mining, and manufacturing. These jobs put males at a higher risk of accidents, injuries, and chemical exposure. These variables may lead to males living shorter lives.